In order to offer you the best possible experience, we suggest that you accept the deposit and reading of cookies and the use of technology necessary for their proper functioning:
Work carried out with a financial grant from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel of the European Community:
The objective of the project is to provide practitioners with a web-based tool to enable them to develop cost-effective design solutions for steel-framed buildings and to enable economic comparisons to be made. It is achieved by providing guidance to designers on the parameters that affect building cost, as well as the tool to calculate the aggregate costs. The tool can also support designers in convincing decision makers and investors to work with steel in commercial, industrial and residential sectors. It leads to a greater understanding of the economics of steel construction in buildings.
|Final report EUR 25124
You can download below User’s Manual of software and documentation on Exemplar buildings in 4 languages: English, French, Dutch and Polish:
Software ACE (Cost estimation for Steel Structures) available in “Design software”.
The objective of this project is the dissemination of knowledge gained in two European research projects. The two research projects deal both with human induced vibration of Steel Structures, a design problem that becomes more and more relevant as structures are more slender if high strength steels are applied.
For the dissemination the conclusions of the research projects - draft guidelines for vibration design of floors and footbridges - will be merged into one guideline and a accompanying background document for vibration design. The resulting guideline would be the first European guideline for vibration design of structures.
|Final report EUR 24184
|Guidelines and Background Documentation in 5 Languages (EN, FR, DE, NL, PT) from http://www.stb.rwth-aachen.de/projekte/2007/HIVOSS/download.php and consult also our brochure "Design guide for floor vibrations"
Composite structures are gaining in importance in Europe. The combination of materials within its specific properties results in very slender and economic constructions. Composite girders permit large spans in slender frame bridges without loss of economy. Due to the high grade of prefabrication in building construction smaller survey heights and shorter construction times are possible. The enduring bearing capacity of composite girders depends on the performance of material and the design of shear connection. A new form of shear transmission - the concrete dowel - permits composite girders without an upper steel flange and an enduring shear connection also of high strength steel with high strength concrete. see more
|Final report EUR 23611
The project has analysed, from both an analytical/numerical and an experimental standpoint, the scenario in which a fire follows an earthquake, thus defining joint typologies for which, after being damaged by an earthquake, a residual load-bearing capacity is assured during a fire occurring after an earthquake. The design has been performed in the modern context of performance-based engineering. Both interior and exterior joints with partially reinforced-concrete encased columns, i.e. type 1 joints, have been designed to be semi-rigid and partial strength, and to exhibit high ductility and limited strength deterioration under severe seismic loadings
|Final report EUR 23750
Based on the experimental and analytical findings, design approaches are proposed at two distinct levels, one for advanced application and another which is more suited to idealised engineering treatments. Overall, this research substantiates the favourable and synergetic capabilities of composite members in resisting extreme loads, and puts forward verified approaches for their application in practice.
|Final report EUR 23738
Modern steel buildings require a high degree of pre-fabrication and effective integration of key components. The concept of open building systems in steel is developed with a focus on the multi-storey residential sector. The research will lead to the development of new systems involving skeletal, planar and modular components, including supporting design information.
|Final report EUR 23860
|Final report EUR 20888
|Final report EUR 20104
Nowadays in engineering offices usual pre-design is still often based on the allowable stress method instead of the more efficient limit states method prescribed by Eurocodes 3 and 4. In order to satisfy the needs of engineering offices, the intention of this research project was : - to develop guidance on the basis of Eurocodes for structural modelling, for global analysis, for checks of members, etc.; - to prepare practical tools (software in particular) for pre-design of steel structures and composite steel-concrete structures according to Eurocodes 1, 3 and 4 respectively, in function of different decisive parameters: the type of rigidity allocated to the structure (i.e. rigid or sway buildings), the type of joints, etc.
|Final report EUR 20323
The first objective (γMO) is addressed by measurement campaigns in steel mills for hot-rolled product characteristics (dimensions and yield strength). Those measured values are used to compute resistances, wich are compared with resistances resulting from the nominal values. A statistical analysis of deviations results in safety factors. The results are quite satisfactory, a value of 1.0 being justified.
|Final Report EUR 20344
The present publication is intended to be a design aid in supplement to the complete document Eurocode 4 - Part 1.1 (always with references to it) in order to provide simplified guidance and to facilitate the use of Eurocode 4 for the design of such composite steel-concrete structures which are usual in common practice: braced composite steel-concrete structures. As this handbook is less formal and more user-friendly than Eurocode 4 additional information have been introduced to offer explanations on design principles or application rules and, about usual design results.
Therefore, the “Design handbook according to Eurocode 4 for braced composite steel-concrete buildings” presents the main design formulas and rules extracted from Eurocode 4 - Part 1.1, which are needed to deal with:
|Publication ECCS N° 96, (also available in DE, ES, FR, IT& NL)
The present publication is intended to be a design aid in supplement to the complete document Eurocode 3 - Part 1.1 in order to facilitate the use of Eurocode 3 for the design of such steel structures which are usual in common practice braced or non-sway steel structures.
Therefore the “Design handbook according to Eurocode 3 for braced or non-sway steel buildings” presents the main design formulas and rules extracted from Eurocode 3 - Part 1.1, which are needed to deal with:
|Publication ECCS N° 85, (also available in DE, ES, FR, IT& NL)
new required conditions in Eurocodes 3 and 4, practical tools for designers (Rotation capacities of profiles…)
Ductility of plastic hinges in steel structures - Guide for plastic analysis; Annexe of the Final Report
|Final Report EUR 18336
New rules for local buckling in Eurocodes 3 and 4
|Final Report EUR 18404
|Final Report EUR 15627
|Final Report EUR 14428
|Final Report EUR 14427
|Final Report EUR 14546
Concrete sections reinforced by multiple encased rolled sections are a possible solution to realize mega columns of tall buildings. In comparison to concrete filled caissons, the advantages are less welding, less fabrication work, the use of simple splices well settled for decades in high-rise projects and possibility of simpler beam to column connections. All these characteristics, combined to the availability of huge rolled sections in steel which do not require pre-heating before welding, lead to another advantage: a high potential for reliable ductile behaviour.
Although codes and specifications do consider composite structural elements, they do not offer specific provisions on the design of composite sections with two or more encased steel sections. Following experimental campaigns and numerical validations, Simplified design approaches are proposed and described in this report in accordance with three codes: European, American and Chinese.
CTBUH Research: Composite Mega Columns Made of Multiple Rolled Sections Untied Between the Floors
The aim of this project is to develop uniform European design rules for protected and unprotected cellular beams (CB) constructed of rolled sections subjected to fire. The use of cellular beams (CB) will be increased by minimising and optimising the cost of fire protection and by allowing a wider use of unprotected CB. This will greatly benefit long span construction, and increase the market share of steel. These results will be achieved based on the development of a new design code of single CB subjected to fire as well as an extended methodology considering the whole floor structure and the beneficial effects of the adjacent members. The reliability of the developed tools will be based on large-scale tests in order to provide a cost-effective design methodology. A set of practical design recommendations will be developed in order to satisfy all the requirements of fire-safe engineering.
|Final report EUR 25122, 2012
In the scope of this project, it is clearly demonstrated that steel structure, if designed appropriately, fulfils the safety requirements in case of fire which will be given in terms of "non-progressive collapse" and "non dangerous failure type". On the basis of a series of parametric studies, several simple design rules as well as some key construction details are proposed in order to help all engineers to design safe steel structures for single storey industrial buildings.
|Final report EUR 24222, 2010
The design guides:
are accompanied by software LUCA available in the Download Center.
The aims of the present research are to improve and to extend the existing physical models, in order to calculate temperature development within various types of structural elements, by including transient state effects. The verification of the current Eurocode models has been performed on the basis of experimental and numerical results.
|Final Report EUR 22570, 2006.
The primary aim of this research was to prove that the fire safety of steel single-storey buildings is sufficient, in the absence of passive fire protection, by means of risk assessment and structural simulations showing that the safety of people and firemen is ensured. The safety of firemen is guaranteed by a safe failure mode and non-progressive collapse behaviour of the structure. This methodology was also extended to low level multi-storey structures (two to four storeys).
|Final Report EUR 22568; 2006
A CFD-based engineering methodology has been developed for determining the thermal behaviour of structural elements in steel/composite-framed buildings subjected to natural fires.
|Final Report EUR 21444, 2005.
|Final Report EUR 23332, 2005.
|Final Report EUR 21426, 2004.
|Final Report EUR 21443, 2004.
|Final Report EUR 20580, 2003.
|Final Report EUR 20466, 2002.
|English version, Final Report EUR 20360
|French version / C.E.C. Research 7215-PP/042
|Italian version / C.E.C. Research 7215-PP/042
|Spanish version / C.E.C. Research 7215-PP/042
|Dutch version / C.E.C. Research 7215-PP/057
|German version / C.E.C. Research 7215-PP/057
|Final Report EUR 20349, 2002
|Final Report EUR 20953, 2002.
|Final Report EUR 18867, 1997.
|Final Report EUR 18868, 1997.
|Final Report EUR 18380, 1996.
|Final Report Eur 14348, 1992
|Final Report EUR 13309, 1991
|Final Report EUR 10828, 1987
Currently on the market available sections made out of fine-grain thermomechanically rolled (TM) and quenched self-tempered (QST) steel (HISTAR®) become more and more an economical and attractive alternative to frequently used welded plate girders in bridge design. Unfortunately the range of span lengths is limited to small and medium bridges – up to about 40-45 m, due to the limited depth of rolled sections.
The report of the R&D study “Innovative design of composite bridges for medium spans based on rolled sections” shows options, how to increase the maximum span lengths of composite bridges with hot-rolled sections. A detailed study on a subsequently built bridge for the city of Olsztyn in Poland was carried out and it could be shown that span lengths up to 55 m could be achieved by using HL1100 profiles in HISTAR®460.
|Report and design recommendations
In the worldwide infrastructure network especially bridges are of essential importance. The request for sustainable structures is urgent as for bridges lifecycle design is intended to cover a span of more than 100 years. Shifting from an initial cost-effective mode to a lifecycle cost-effective mode seems to be demanding in regard of increasing maintenance, rehabilitation and renewal of bridges also in view of the rapid growing traffic volume on bridges. Within the European funded research project “Sustainable Steel-Composite Bridges in Built Environment” (SBRI) a holistic approach is applied by combining environmental, social and economic indicators. The obtained results provide a basis for the development of European recommendations for the design of sustainable bridges.
|Final report EUR 26322
|handbook: introduction of a fully integrated lifecycle model integrating environmental, economic and functional aspects and illustrated by a case study.
|User-friendly software tool which enables the combined analysis of Lifecycle Assessment (LCA), Lifecycle Costs (LCC) and Lifecycle Performance (LCP) of different bridge case studies and the comparative analysis between alternative solutions.
In the design and construction of bridges, questions of sustainability, maintenance and durability are becoming more and more important for European road administrations, in addition to safety and serviceability issues. Therefore integral abutment bridges are becoming highly attractive to designers, constructors and road administrations, as they tend to be less expensive to build, easier to maintain and more economical to own over their life time. Bearings and joints are main sources of maintenance costs during a lifetime. These costs vanish because the bridges are joint- and bearing-free. However, this very advantage complicates the design compared to conventional bridges in some crucial respects. Combined with the fact that most European countries have only limited experience with integral bridges to date, this leads to a reluctance of road administrations to use this bridge type. Thus the main objective of the project is to experimentally and theoretically investigate the behaviour of critical points of integral abutment bridges. Regarding the soil-structure interaction, recommendations are elaborated based on monitoring results as well as previous research and monitoring campaigns. Conventional HP piles and sheet piles are investigated as a foundation. Furthermore a hinged HP connection is developed to decrease the stresses in the pile system. An investigation of the design and construction of the slab to pavement approach is also carried out to avoid major damages to the structure. Finally the most important information is condensed into the essential features in form of a 'Design guide for composite bridges with integral abutments'.
|Final report EUR 24224
Bridges are an integral part of the worldwide traffic infrastructure and long-span bridges especially contribute to mobility and economy of time in travelling. Improvements of the steel-plated cross-sections of steel and composite bridge structures help to enhance the competitiveness of such bridges.
Herein the aims are the valorisation and dissemination of the knowledge and results which have been acquired within the preceding RFCS research project 'Competitive steel and composite bridges by improved steel plated structures Combri' for practitioners with regard to plate buckling verifications.
The outcome is the Combri design manual consisting of two parts which provide clearly arranged and concise documents for daily use.
|Part I 'Application of Eurocode rules' covers two composite bridge structures - a twin-girder and a box-girder bridge-on the basis of worked examples for which the knowledge is written down in a descriptive manner and references are given to current Eurocode rules.
|Part II 'State-of-the-art and conceptual design of steel and composite bridges' presents the current practice in several European countries and common bridge types as well as unusual bridges for special purposes or development projects. Improvements which can be provided to the design of steel and composite bridges are discussed and the possibilities and restrictions given by the current Eurocode rules are highlighted. In this report, proposals are also formulated to implement the newly gained state-of-the-art knowledge into standardisation via nationally determined parameters (NDP), non-contradictory complementary information (NCCI) and suggestions for the next revision of the Eurocodes .
Composite structures are gaining in importance due to the economic and versatile application. A new form of shear transmission — the composite dowel — permits composite girders without an upper steel flange and with enduring shear connection. The composite dowel is produced by cutting a rolled beam with a determined cutting-line into two parts. Due to the high degree of automation and of prefabrication shorter construction times and less amount of work are possible. However, few experiences with continuous shear connectors have been gained so far. In the frame of the project ‘Prefabricated Enduring Composite Beams based on Innovative Shear Transmission’ the economic efficiency of these composite girders — Preco-Beams — has been evaluated.
|Final Report EUR 25321
In the frame of this project, new concepts for the design of easily buildable composite bridges have been developed wich are attractive for being executed by the main contractor without problems on site. The composite bridge concepts being developed cover the span range of about 15 to 50 m, to extend the traditional span lengths of composite bridges for small and medium spans. Therefore, the new concepts cover about 75% of all span requirements for road bridges. Particular features of these new concepts are the sufficient robustness for execution, cost effectiveness, durability in use and a minimum of construction time.
|Final Report EUR 20583
The present Design Manual consists in a series of technical guides in order to facilitate applications of the Eurocodes, for the design of steel buildings.
These design manual is helpful for steel fabricators and engineering offices. Some guides dealing with advantages of the use of steel will also apply to architects. These guides provide a strong source of knowledge for designers in accordance with Eurocodes.
These guides cover two types of buildings:
1. Multi-storey building (MSB)
Part 1: Architect’s guide
Part 2: Concept design
Part 3: Actions
Part 4: Detailed design
Part 5: Joint design
Part 6: Fire Engineering
Part 7: Model construction specification
Part 8: Description of member resistance calculator-> (Excel file)
Part 9: Description of simple connection resistance calculator -> (Excel file)
Part 10: Guidance to developers of software for the design of composite beams
All Parts (ZIP file)
2. Single storey building (SSB)
Part 1: Architect’s guide
Part 2: Concept design
Part 3: Actions
Part 4: Detailed design of portal frames
Part 5: Detailed design of trusses
Part 6: Detailed design of built up columns
Part 7: Fire engineering
Part 8: Building envelope
Part 9: Introduction to computer software
Part 10: Model construction specification
Part 11: Moment connections
All Parts (ZIP file)
The French law "Risque" No. 2003-699 of 30 July 2003 on prevention of technological and natural risks and repairing damage has created a new approach of control of the urban development around hazard installations: the Risk Preventions Plans Technology (PPRT). Their goal is to limit the risk exposure of population. To do this, the PPRTs Regulation can establish among others- constructive action on the frame, in the form of regulations or recommendations.
Recent studies (application of technical specifications supplement the effects of overpressure, 2008) showed the potential vulnerability of steel buildings of industrial use, built according to classic engineering construction rules and respecting the DTU Snow and wind, and situated in the area of a hazard technological overpressure (even low-intensity 20-50 mbar).
Improving the protection of persons located inside such buildings involves therefore determining specific constructive provisions for future construction. Moreover, they must take into account concerns technical and economic and be conceived with an efficiency / cost ratio efficient than enables not, most of the time, a design taking into account only the level of overpressure and performed according to standard techniques consultants. To respond to this dual problem this guide has been imagined as part of the research project BATIRSUR.
The project, with experimental and theoretical components, has allowed to develop, validate and apply precise calculation tools taking into account the influence of various parameters of steel buildings for industrial use (in the structures of elements) and the load (at the level of the signal applying pressure on the structure).
The BATIRSUR design guide is intended for construction professionals, contractors and project managers. It offers design rules associated with constructive recommendations for the realization of new single storey steel buildings meeting the PPTRs performance targets for overpressure zone 20-50 mbar.
The guide provides a modular methodology based on simplified calculation tools that enable engineers to quickly and easily assess the risk of failure of the steel structure against the pressure hazard. With easy design and an optimized design, it meets the economic requirements of professionals.
This European research project was concerned with identifying the factors which will influence the next generation of building design and in developing opportunities for steel-intensive products and systems.
Three market sectors were studied:
which are different in character and in potential market share for steel. The work has been carried out in the participating countries in order to identify differences in market perception and opportunities across Europe. A set of documents were elaborated in order to help steel customers with their design. Furthermore a database with relevant info was created.
Further information in the official site www.eurobuild-in-steel.com
The present report resumes the results of the market survey done by the authors during the years 2001 to 2004. The scope of the survey has been defined thanks to main keywords "low-rise buildings" and "standardised steel solutions". This work identifies, as far as possible, the existing available solutions within the European market.
The technical objective of LVS3 project is to disseminate the knowledge acquired in the recent years about the environmental impact assessment of steel and composite buildings. During the last decade, a lot of research projects have been funded to develop methodologies, systems and products aiming at improving the thermal efficiency as well as the global environmental footprint of steel buildings. The new standard EN 15804 intended for environmental calculation of buildings takes now into account the fact that steel is a recyclable material (Module D).
The project was divided in 4 steps:
There is also a dissemination package which consists in different documents and software:
All documents are available on a following address dedicated to this project: http://sustainable-steel.eu/
Clients and building users demand energy efficient buildings, and governments at national and European level have introduced regulations to minimise energy use in new buildings to meet CO2 reduction targets. Steel construction is well placed to meet these new energy efficiency targets by developing new products and systems, which actively and passively reduce energy consumption in commercial and residential buildings.
In this research, work has been done to:
This work provide the basis for marketable steel products and systems and establish their basic physical performance characteristics.
|Final report EUR 23180
This demonstration project aims to demonstrate that an intelligent combination of steel components covering hot rolled profiles, cold formed sections, tubular sections and flat products, leads to economical structures, thanks to a symbiosis between cold formed and hot rolled steel products. It consists in 3 demonstration buildings:
Project I, named “CRM4”, is an intensive steel two levels office building which has been designed and erected during the research period. Important issues like structural, thermal, environmental as well as cost analysis are developed. This architectural building has been achieved within a construction cost of 980 €/m2 and has been designed for efficient energy consumption leading to low use costs;
Project II, named “Jeanne de Champagne”, is an existing social housing building with steel structure: In the scope of the report, the steel structure has been optimised and steel use possibilities have been investigated for the façade (thermal and environmental assessments);
Project III, named “Cultural center” demonstrates the benefits of semi-rigid connections and composite design in low-rise buildings through economical comparison.
These assessments on structural, thermal, environmental and economical aspects have highlighted that steel is a suitable material for low-rise buildings. The dissemination tools issued from the project are: steel solutions for low-rise buildings within Europe; a promotional video of 15 minutes, available in English and French language recorded on DVD support, explains in a very pleasant way each step of the CRM4 construction.
|Final report EUR 22080